Herbert Spencer was a theorist whose valuable insights have often been drowned in a sea of irrelevance and spacious reasoning. The differences are as follows, 1 The organism is a concrete, integrated whole whereas society is a whole composed of discrete and dispersed elements. Although all parts of society and living organism are inter- dependant there is importance of the whole.
Similarly, different organs perform different functions for the continuity of the whole. So society and the living organism are similar. So the society and the living organism cannot be compared with each other on this ground.
Since, Spencer claimed, we cannot know anything non-empirical, we cannot know whether there is a God or what its character might be.
The tension between positivism and his residual deism ran through the entire System of Synthetic Philosophy. In he contributed some letters republished later as a pamphlet, The Proper Sphere of Government  to The Nonconformist, in which he argued that it is the business of governments to uphold natural rights and that they do more harm than good when they go beyond that.
The process of growth and development is gradual and it passes from simple to complex. He identified society with a biological organism. His sociology, although it gave an impetus to the study of society, was superseded as a result of the development of social anthropology and was much more concerned with providing a rationale for his social ideals than he himself appreciated.
Society is abstract whereas living organism is concrete. He is best remembered for his doctrine of social Darwinismaccording to which the principles of evolution, including natural selectionapply to human societies, social classes, and individuals as well as to biological species developing over geologic time.
See Article History Herbert Spencer, born April 27,DerbyDerbyshire, England—died December 8,BrightonSussexEnglish sociologist and philosopher, an early advocate of the theory of evolutionwho achieved an influential synthesis of knowledge, advocating the preeminence of the individual over society and of science over religion.
But the death of a society does not come with organic inevitableness. In Spencer produced an outline of what was to become the System of Synthetic Philosophy.
Its publisher, John Chapmanintroduced Spencer to his salon which was attended by many of the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital, including John Stuart MillHarriet MartineauGeorge Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans George Eliotwith whom he was briefly romantically linked.
Though Spencer made some valuable contributions to early sociology, not least in his influence on structural functionalismhis attempt to introduce Lamarckian or Darwinian ideas into the realm of sociology was unsuccessful.
At the same time, however, he owed far more than he would ever acknowledge to positivism, in particular in its conception of a philosophical system as the unification of the various branches of scientific knowledge.
The Principles of Psychology was much less successful than Social Statics, however, and about this time Spencer began to experience serious predominantly mental health problems that affected him for the rest of his life.
After some association with progressive journalism through such papers as The Zoist devoted to mesmerism, or hypnosisand phrenology and The Pilot the organ of the Complete Suffrage UnionSpencer became in a subeditor of The Economist.
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. In his "Principles of Sociology Spencer observed some similarities between biological and social organism: He worked as a civil engineer during the railway boom of the late s, while also devoting much of his time to writing for provincial journals that were nonconformist in their religion and radical in their politics.
From that, he continued, it would follow that any force that continues to act on what is homogeneous must bring about an increasing variety. Spencer had many very extreme political views and grew to despise government programs that were aimed to help the poor.
Nevertheless, by the end of his life, his political views were no longer as popular as they had once been, and the dominant currents in liberalism allowed for a more interventionist state. In both he found a regulative system the central nervous system in the one, government in the othera sustaining system alimentation in the one case, industry in the otherand a distribution system veins and arteries in the first; roads, telegraphs, etc.
He was concerned with overall structure of society, the interrelationship of the parts of society, and the functions of the parts for each other as well as for the system as a whole.
Militant society, structured around relationships of hierarchy and obedience, was simple and undifferentiated; industrial society, based on voluntary, contractually assumed social obligations, was complex and differentiated. Huxley that met every month and included some of the most prominent thinkers of the Victorian age three of whom would become presidents of the Royal Society.
So society and the living organism are similar. Herbert Spencer made it a point that we should try to understand society rather than change it.
There is no break in the importance of the whole. The only function of government was to be the policing and protection of individual rights.
He identified society with a biological organism. In the living organism there is centralization of consciousness but in the society different parts have different consciousness of their own. In the end it was his harsh views on politics that held his ideas back from being accepted right away.
For human beings to flourish and develop, Spencer held that there must be as few artificial restrictions as possible, and it is primarily freedom that he, contra Bentham, saw as promoting human happiness.
From an early age, Herbert was strongly influenced by the individualism and the anti-establishment and anti-clerical views of his father, and the Benthamite radical views of his uncle Thomas. In fact, it was Spencer, and not Darwin, who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest," though Darwin came to employ the expression in later editions of the Origin of Species.
In his "Principles of Sociology Spencer observed some similarities between biological and social organism:Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology (, first edition) was regarded by his contemporaries, including William James and John Dewey, as a major contribution to what was then a very new discipline.
In this book he first expounded his ideas about both evolution of species and how behavior of. The sociologist Herbert Spencer is credited with the phrase "survival of the fittest," which he applied to biological evolution years before Darwin's "Origin of Species," and also to the evolution of society.
Free herbert spencer papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned over essays yet they completely differ on their views of the function of sociology.
Spencer and Compte both realize that there is an order of co-existance in society. Society itself is made up of several components and parts which are subject to.
Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner - Social Darwinism is term that is used for application of biological concepts of Charles Darwin to sociology and political science.
Herbert Spencer (—) This view is evident, not only in his first significant major contribution to political philosophy, Social Statics, but in his later essays--some of which appear in later editions of The Man versus the State.
Spencer, Herbert. The Factors. Herbert Spencer (27 April – 8 While the overall influence that "The Philosophy of Style" had on the field of rhetoric was not as far-reaching as his contribution to other fields, Spencer's voice lent authoritative support to Robert G.
"Herbert Spencer's 'Principles of Sociology:' a Centennial Retrospective and Appraisal." Annals.Download